## Basic Material Properties

Stress ( $$\sigma$$ ): Internal force per cross-sectional area $$\sigma = \frac{F}{A}$$ Strain ( $$\epsilon$$ ): Ratio of elongation to original $$\epsilon = \frac{\Delta L}{L}$$ Thermal Strain ( $$\epsilon _T$$ ), Thermal Stress ( \( \sigma

## Young's Modulus By Four-Point Bending Test

The apparatus was set up as above with masses varied at points A and C. The distances from the supports to the ends of the beam were measured and equalised

## The Development of Carbon Fibres and Their Applications in Composite Materials

Materials Engineering

Carbon fibre is a material composed of threads of mainly carbon at 5 to 10 nanometers in diameter. These carbon atoms are bound parallel to the direction of the thread